Footnotes & Sources


The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Defining Overweight and Obesity," cdc.gov, last updated Dec. 8, 2009

  2. Goodard Danai, et al., "The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors," plosmedicine.org, Apr. 28, 2009

  3. USDA, "What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010," usda.gov, 2012

  4. Prospective Studies Collaboration, "Body-Mass Index and Cause-Specific Mortality in 900,000 Adults: Collaborative Analyses of 57 Prospective Studies," Lancet, Mar. 28, 2009

  5. Jeffrey M. Friedman, MD, PhD, "The Real Cause of Obesity," Newsweek, Sep. 10, 2009

  6. Albert J. Stunkard, MD, et al., "The Body-Mass Index of Twins Who Have Been Reared Apart," New England Journal of Medicine, May 4, 1990

  7. USDA, "How Many Can I Have?," choosemyplate.gov (accessed Apr. 21, 2014)

  8. AAFP, "Diagnosis and Management of Obesity," aafp.org, 2013

  9. David B. Allison, PhD, et al., "Obesity as a Disease: A White Paper on Evidence and Arguments Commissioned by the Council of the Obesity Society," obesityjournal.org, Apr. 2008

  10. National Institutes of Health (NIH), "Understanding Adult Obesity," win.niddk.nih.gov, Nov. 2008

  11. World Health Organization, "Obesity and Overweight Fact Sheet No311," who.int, Mar. 2013

  12. CDC, "Adult Obesity Facts," cdc.gov, Mar. 28, 2014

  13. Cynthia L. Ogden, Margaret D. Carroll, Brian K. Kit, and Katherine M. Flegal, "Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012," JAMA, Feb. 26, 2014

  14. MayoClinic, "Obesity: Definition," mayoclinic.com, June 7, 2013

  15. Hilary Parker, "A Sweet Problem: Princeton Researchers Find That High-Fructose Corn Syrup Prompts Considerably More Weight Gain," princeton.edu, Mar. 22, 2010

  16. S.W. Keith, D.T. Redden, and P.T. Katzmarzyk, et al., "Putative Contributors to the Secular Increase in Obesity: Exploring the Roads Less Traveled," International Journal of Obesity, nature.com, June 27, 2006

  17. Mayo Clinic, "Obesity: Causes," mayoclinic.com, June 7, 2013

  18. Tara Parker Pope, "Less Active at Work, Americans Have Packed on Pounds," nytimes.com, May 25, 2011

  19. American Medical Association House of Delegates, "Recognition of Obesity as a Disease," npr.org, June 19, 2013

  20. Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 26CFR1.213-1, .irs.gov, 2002

  21. National Health Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), "NCHS Data on Obesity," cdc.gov, updated May 2009

  22. Eric A. Finkelstein, MD, Justin G. Trogdon, PhD, Joel W. Cohen, PhD, and William Dietz, MD, PhD, "Annual Medical Spending Attributable to Obesity: Payer-And Service-Specific Estimates," Health Affairs, July 27, 2009

  23. National Consumers League, "New Obesity Survey: Many Americans Think They're 'Lighter' Than They Are, Most Not Being Told by a Doctor They Need to Lose Weight," nclnet.org, June 19, 2007

  24. Gallup, "Public: Lifestyle, Not Disease, Causes Obesity," gallup.com, Aug. 10, 2004

  25. H.R. 3962, "The Affordable Health Care for America Act," (3190 KB) thomas.gov, Oct. 29, 2009

  26. Rachel Rettner, "Is Obesity a Disease? Doctors Debate," livescience.com, June 27, 2012

  27. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), "Regulations on Statements Made for Dietary Supplements Concerning the Effect of the Product on the Structure or Function of the Body; Final Rule," fda.gov, Jan. 6, 1999

  28. National Institutes of Health (NIH), "Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults," (1,278 KB) nih.gov, Sep. 1998

  29. World Health Organization (WHO), "Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic," who.int, 2000

  30. American College of Gastroenterology (ACG), "Obesity: A Growing & Dangerous Public Health Challenge," (4,299 KB) gi.org, 2008

  31. US Department of Health and Human Service (HHS) Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), "CMS Manual System Pub. 100-03 Medicare National Coverage Determinations," cms.hhs.gov, Oct. 1, 2009

  32. Gallup, "Mississippians Most Obese, Montanans Least Obese," gallup.com, Mar. 4, 2014

  33. "American Medical Association House of Delegates Resolution: 420: Recognition of Obesity as a Disease," npr.org, June 19, 2013

  34. Robert Thomas, "Dr. Thomas's Opinions on Corpulence," The Medical Advisor and Guide to Health and Long Life, Feb. 12, 1825

  35. G.A. Bray, "Obesity Is a Chronic, Relapsing Neurochemical Disease," International Journal of Obesity, 2004

  36. Surgeon General, "Overweight and Obesity: Health Consequences," surgeongeneral.com, Nov. 19, 2013

  37. Jeffrey Friedman, "Obesity Is Genetic," newsweek.com, Sep. 9, 2009

  38. Albert J. Stunkard, Jennifer R. Harris, Nancy L. Pedersen, and Gerald E. McClearn, "The Body-Mass Index of Twins Who Have Been Reared Apart," New England Journal of Medicine, May 24, 1990

  39. American Medical Association, "AMA Adopts New Policies on Second Day of Voting at Annual Meeting," ama-assn.org, June 18, 2013

  40. Laurel Herold, "High BMI Might Mean a Longer Life. Eat Up?," healthtalk.umn.edu, Jan. 17, 2013

  41. Patrick J. Skerrett, "Overweight and Healthy: The Concept of Metabolically Healthy Obesity," health.harvard.edu, Sep. 24, 2013

  42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Obesity: Halting the Epidemic by Making Health Easier, At a Glance 2011," cdc.gov, May 26, 2011

  43. Mayo Clinic, "Obesity: Causes," mayoclinic.com, June 7, 2013

  44. Huffington Post, "The New (Ab)Normal: Portion Sizes Today vs. In the 1950s (Infographic)," huffingtonpost.com, May 23, 2012

  45. Helen W. Wu and Roland Sturm, "What's on the Menu? A Review of the Energy and Nutritional Content of US Chain Restaurant Menus," Public Health Nutrition, Jan. 2013

  46. American College of Gastroenterology, "ACG Obesity Initiative," gi.org, 2014

  47. American Heart Association, "Treating Obesity as a Disease," heart.org, Apr. 14, 2014

  48. Harvard School of Public Health, "Obesity Prevention Source: Health Risks," hsph.harvard.edu (accessed Jan. 10, 2014)

  49. Curt Anderson, "IRS Recognizes Obesity as a Disease," americanobesity.org, Apr. 2, 2002

  50. FDA, "Questions and Answers - The FDA's Obesity Working Group Report," fda.gov, June 2, 2013

  51. Mary MacVean, "Medical Cost of Childhood Obesity Is $19,000, Researchers Say," latimes.com, Apr. 7, 2014

  52. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The State of Food and Agriculture," fao.org, 2013

  53. CIA, "The World Factbook: Nauru," cia.gov, Mar. 27, 2014

  54. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), "Economic Explanations of Increased Obesity," nber.org (accessed Apr. 24, 2014)

  55. David S. Ludwig and Mark I. Friedman, "Always Hungry? Here's Why," nytimes.com, May 16, 2014

  56. Lizzie Parry, "Do YOU Have the Obesity Gene? Scientists Discover Defective DNA Affects Impulse Eating and Food Choices," dailymail.co.uk, May 28, 2014

  57. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: NCHS Factsheet," cdc.gov, Jan. 2016

  58. Global BMI Mortality Collaboration, "Body-Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality: Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis of 239 Prospective Studies in Four Continents," thelancet.com, July 13, 2016

  59. Sarah Boseley, "Obesity Causes Premature Death, Concluded Study of Studies," theguardian.com, July 13, 2016

  60. Susan Scutti, "The Weirder Side of Obesity: Genetic Forms of Obesity Are Rare Yet Numerous," cnn.com, Mar. 27, 2017

  61. Y. Kaur, R.J. de Souza, W.T. Gibson, and D. Meyre, "A Systematic Review of Genetic Syndromes with Obesity," Obesity Reviews, Mar. 27, 2017


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American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), "Obesity and Overweight," aafp.org (accessed Dec. 17, 2009)

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), "AAP Policy," aap.org (accessed Dec. 17, 2009)

American Medical Association (AMA), "Report 4 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-05)," ama-assn.org, June 2005

American Nurses Association (ANA), "ANA Position Statements," nursingworld.org (accessed Dec. 17, 2009)

Nicholas Bakalar, "More Americans on the Road to Obesity," New York Times, Aug.10, 2009

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George Bray, MD, "Drug Treatment of Obesity: Don't Throw the Baby Out with the Bath Water," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Jan. 1998

Kelly Brownell, PhD, and Marion Nestle, PhD, "America's Obesity Crisis: Are You Responsible for Your Own Weight?," TIME magazine, June 7, 2004

John Cawley, PhD, "Labor Market Impacts of Obesity," Economics of Obesity, May 2004

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "U.S. Obesity Trends," cdc.gov, last updated Nov. 20, 2009

Nicholas A. Christakis, MD, PhD, and James H. Fowler, PhD, "The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years," New England Journal of Medicine, July 26, 2007

Robert Crosnoe, "Gender, Obesity, and Education," Sociology of Education, July 2007

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